نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته زبانشناسی همگانی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، گروه زبانشناسی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زبانشناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر دو عامل «جنسیت» و «سن» بر کاربرد «دشواژه‌ها‌» در گفتار روزمره گویشوران زبان فارسی است. برای دستیابی به هدف مذکور از پرسشنامه‌ای محقق‌ساخته بهره‌ گرفته‌ایم و آن را به صورت تصادفی میان 523 زن و مرد فارسی‌زبان در 4 گروه سنی مختلف (25-15 سال، 35-26 سال، 45-36 سال و بالای 45 سال) توزیع کردیم. این پژوهش به لحاظ روش‌شناسی میدانی و پیمایشی بوده و ماهیتاً توصیفی-تحلیلی‌ست. اطلاعات گردآمده از پرسشنامه بر پایة ‌تلفیقی از آراء باتیستلا (Batisttella, 2005)، جی (Jay, 2009) و وارداف (Wardhaugh, 2006) درخصوص دسته‌بندی «دشواژه‌ها»‌ تحلیل شدند. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل‌های آماری با استفاده از آزمون‌های تی، تحلیل واریانس و توکی نشان داد مردان در حالت‌ عادی و نیز عصبانیت بیشتر از زنان از «دشواژه» استفاده می‌کنند و میانگین کاربرد دشواژه‌های رکیک‌تر در مردان بالاتر است. علاوه‌براین، یافته‌ها نشان داد زنان و مردان فارسی‌زبان به طور کلی از شش دسته از دشواژه‌ها در گفتار روزمرة خود استفاده می‌کنندکه بسامد دشواژه‌های مربوط به دسته‌های «مسائل جنسی»، «دفعیات بدن» و «انگ‌ها» به در مردان بالاتر است؛ در حالی که در گفتار زنان بسامد دشواژه‌های مربوط به دستة «مرگ و بیماری (نفرین)» بیشتر است. همچنین، مشخص شد تفاوت مقادیر به‌کارگیری دشواژه‌ در بین گروه‌های سنی مختلف به لحاظ آماری معنادار است: در اغلب موارد و در هر دو حالت عادی و عصبانیت، شرکت‌کنندگان 25-15 ساله دشواژه‌های بیشتر و رکیک‌تری را نسبت به سه گروه سنی دیگر استفاده می‌کنند؛ در حالی که درخصوص افراد 45 سال به بالا این موضوع کاملاً برعکس است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Gender-and Age-based Study of “Taboo Words” in the Speech of Persian Speakers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Khaleqi 1
  • َAva Imani 2

1 MA student of General Linguistics, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

چکیده [English]

1. Introduction
Language, as means of communication, is continually influenced by our society, that’s why the reflection of social variables in our everyday speech is inevitable. Among different social factors, the sociolinguist researchers have far investigated the correlation between “gender” and linguistic categories to examine the men and women’s language features. Lakoff & Bucholtz (2004) suggested that women’s speech was characterized by linguistic features such as precise color terms, polite forms (e.g. indirect requests), tag questions and empathic stress. In this regard, Holmes (2013, p. 308) claimed that many of the features identified as the characteristics of women’s language were positive politeness devices expressing solidarity.
Politeness and “taboo words”, on the other hand, had been the focus of many sociolinguistic researches, such as Jay (2009), Batisttella (2005) and Wardhaugh’s (2006). Jay (2009, p. 156) claims that both “gender” and “age” can affect the word choice and frequency; men swear more frequently in public than women. As for age, the swearing rate peak in the teenage years and declines thereafter (Jay, 2009, p. 156). The present research paper aims to conduct a gender- and age-based study of “taboo words” in the everyday speech of Persian- speaking men and women and to find the answer to the following questions: 1. How does “gender” affect the frequency and the use of “taboo words” in the everyday speech of Persian speakers?; 2. How the “age” of Persian speakers affects the use of “taboo words”? and 3. Which types of "taboo words" do the Persian speakers use in their speech?
2. Materials and methods
As far as it is concerned to the methodology, this research is a field survey research benefiting from the qualitative components and the quantitative approach. The aim of the research is to do a sociolinguistic analysis of “taboo words” focusing on the “gender” and “age” of the Persian-speaking men and women. To this end, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed and randomly distributed among 523 Persian- speaking men and women in 4 different age groups (15-25, 26-35, 36-45, and 45 years and older). The theoretical framework was based on Batisttella (2005), Jay (2009) and Wardhaugh’s (2006) proposed classification of taboo words, and the statistical tests including T-test, ANOVA, and Tukey were used for data analysis. In this study taboo words were classified as 1. Epithets, 2. Animal imagery, 3. Bodily Excretions, 4. Death and disease, 5. Sex, and 6. Politics and religion.
3. Results and discussion
This survey was carried out to examine the effect of “gender” and “age” on the frequency and the use of “taboo words” in the everyday speech of Persian speakers. As for gender, the findings showed that there is a significant difference between men and women in the use of taboo words (P< 0.05); the results are briefly summarized in table (1):
Table 1: The amount of the usage of taboo words in men and women (both in normal & in angry mood)
Situation Gender N Average Standard deviation T Degree of freedom Significance level
Normal woman 264 2.0558 .75164 -3.942 514.615 .000*
man 259 2.3279 .82455
Angry woman 264 2.0587 .82433 -1.977 521 .049*
man 259 2.1950 .74910

The above table shows that men use more taboo words than women in both situations. Moreover, one-by-one analysis of the questioned taboo words revealed that men tended to use stronger swear words than women: epithets, animal imagery, and taboos related to sex, bodily excretions, politics and religion were mostly used by men more frequently. However, the average amount of using the category of “death and disease” taboos was more frequent in women’s speech.
In response to the second question, the results indicated that the difference between various age groups in the use of taboo words was statistically significant (see table 2).
Table 2: The Average use of taboo words in different age groups (both in normal & in angry mood)
Situation Age group N Average Standard deviation F Significance level
Normal 15-25 108 2.5043 .85692 18.157 .000*
26-35 167 2.2994 .78394
36-45 125 2.1605 .74579
45 and older 123 1.7978 .65553
Angry 15-25 108 2.4282 .82602 11.769 .000*
26-35 167 2.1796 .72700
36-45 125 2.0760 .78045
45 and older 123 1.8394 .75145


The data in the above table revealed that the participants aged 15-25 used more taboo words than their peers in the other age groups in both situations. Furthermore, the results of the Tukey test showed that the 15-25-year-old participants used more taboo words than the other age groups both in angry mood and in normal speech. Besides, the data suggested that the youngest group also used more forbidden taboo words classified as the categories of “sex”, “bodily excretions”, and “animal imagery” taboos.
4. Conclusion
The results of the statistical tests showed that the rate of using taboo words by men and women in normal speech and in angry mood was significantly different (P<0.05). To be more precise, men used more taboo words than women in both situations and they normally used more taboo words with a higher degree of rudeness than women ("sexual issues", "bodily excretions" and "epithets" categories), but the average usage of taboo words related to the category of "death & disease" was more frequent in women’s speech. Furthermore, the results of Tukey's test showed that the 15–25-year-old participants used insulting expressions more than the other age groups both in angry mood and in normal speech; while the eldest participants (the age group over 45 years old) had the lowest rate of using taboo words in both moods. Thus, we concluded that both “gender” and “age” affected the usage of taboo words in the everyday speech of Persian speakers.
Keywords: taboo word, gender, age, Sociolinguistics, the Persian language.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • taboo word
  • gender
  • age
  • Sociolinguistics
  • the Persian language